Traditional substation design has segmented secondary equipment into separate functional “compartments”. A Remote Terminal Unit performs remote control and monitoring, protective relays provide protection, strip charts record metering data, meter-dials display volts and amps and control handles and annunciator panels provide local control and monitoring. 

The industry has experienced significant change in design philosophy over the last ten years. SCADA has been supplemented, and in some cases replaced, by Integration and Automation Systems. It is somewhat difficult to define strict functional boundaries between the three systems and the terms are very often used interchangeably. 

In the opinion of the authors, the differences can be summarized as follows: 

• SCADA is responsible for providing amps, volts, watts, CB status, etc. This is normally accomplished using a RTU. 
Resulta ng larawan para sa SCADA

• Integration systems provide the same data, typically acquired from IEDs using legacy or industry standard communications protocols. In some designs, the integration system supplants the RTU, in others the RTU is treated as another IED. In addition to the “traditional” SCADA data, the Integration System also has access to additional data like fault forensics, diagnostics, maintenance, alarming etc, extracted from the IEDs. 

The challenge is externalizing these data, and two choices are available – map the data (somehow) into the SCADA protocol the SCADA Control Center supports, or provide a secondary link into the substation to access the data – normally some form of broadband access. 

• Automation systems provide the same functionality as the Integration System with one additional and differentiating feature, namely the ability to turn data into something meaningful and valuable. 
Resulta ng larawan para sa scada automation
What additional characteristics does a substation design have to possess to be deemed an Automation system? It must be capable of providing the following advanced, value-added applications: 

• Protection and Process Automation - the core protection and control processes; 

• Maintenance Automation - tools and tactics to employ Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) and Just-inTime (JIT) Maintenance for transformers, breakers, switches, CTs and VTs; 

• Information Automation - the “art” of changing data to information, trending, alarming, archiving and employing expert decisions; 

• Information Distribution - getting pertinent information to where it can be used.



1. PCB. The plain side is the component side and the soldered side is the track side. Figure 1 shows the track side full size. Make the PCB from the pattern given in Figure 1. Otherwise, build the circuit on a matrix board.

2. Three resistors. Locate the gold or silver band around the resistor, and turn the resistor until this band is to the right. There are three coloured bands at the left-hand end of the resistor. Find the resistor whose colours are YELLOW, VIOLET, RED, and look at the resistor colour code chart which you will find in Chapter 7. From this, you will see that YELLOW indicates the value 4, VIOLET the value 7, and RED the value 2. The first two colours represent real numbers, and the last value is the number of zeros (noughts) which go after the two numbers. So, the value is 47 with two zeros, i.e. 4700 ohms. In this way, the resistor coloured BROWN, GREY, BROWN has a value of 180 ohms, and the last one, BROWN, RED, GREEN, has a value of 1 200 000 ohms. The ohm (often written as the Greek letter omega ( )) is the unit of resistance. If you do not yet feel confident in identifying resistors by their colours, use the Resistor Colour Codes.

3. Four capacitors. The two small ‘beads’ are tantalum capacitors and will be marked 4.7 F or 4 7, with a ‘+’ above one lead. A tubular capacitor with wires coming from each end should be marked 220 F, with one end marked ‘+’ or ‘–’. This is called an axial capacitor because the wires lie on the axis of the cylinder. This is in contrast to the final capacitor, where both wires emerge from the same end. This is a radial capacitor, and will be marked 47 F. Again, one lead will be marked ‘+’ or ‘–’. Capacitors marked like this are said to be polarised, and it is vital that these are placed on the PCB the right way round, so take notice of those signs!

4. Two diodes. These are tiny glass cylinders with a band around one end, and may be marked 1N4148; this is their type number. Like polarised capacitors, they must be put on the PCB the correct way round!

5. Three transistors. One should be a BC548 (or a BC182), the other two should be BC558 (or BC212).

6. One volume control with internal switch.

7. One loudspeaker. This is quite fragile – don’t let anything press against the cone.

8. One PP3 battery clip with red and black leads.

Putting it together
Lay the PCB on a flat, clean surface with the track side downwards. It is
always useful to compare the layout with the circuit diagram, given here in
Figure 3. Although you can’t see it, the D-i-Y Radio sign should be at the
top. Compare the hole positions with those shown in Figure 2. Bend the
resistor wires at right angles to their bodies so that they fit cleanly into the
holes in the PCB. Push each resistor towards the board so that it lies flat on
the board. Then supporting each one, turn the board over and splay out the
wires just enough to prevent the resistor falling out. Then, solder each wire
to its pad on the PCB, and cut off the excess wire. When you have more
confidence, you can cut of the excess wire before soldering; it often makes
a tidier joint.

Now fit the four capacitors. Each must be connected the right way round,
so look at each component, match it up with the diagram of Figure 2, bend
its wires carefully and repeat the soldering process you performed with the
resistors, making sure that the components are close to the board and not up
on stilts! Fit the two diodes the correct way round, and solder then as
quickly as you can – they don’t like to be fried!
Mount the transistors about 5 mm above the PCB. Make sure the correct
transistors are in the correct places, and that the flats on the bodies match
up with those shown in Figure 2.

Mount the volume control so that the spindle comes out from the front of
the board. Use a piece of red insulated wire to the pad marked + on the PCB,
and a black piece to the pad marked –, and solder these to the tags on the
back of the control, as shown in Figure 4. Connect the two leads from the
battery clip to the other tags on the switch; Figure 4 will help you. Finally,
use two pieces of insulated wire about 100 mm long, twisted together, to
connect the loudspeaker to the PCB.


Magnetic Classification of Materials
What Are the Magnetic classifications of Materials?

Material Type Description

Nonmagnetic No magnetic reaction.

Diamagnetic Induced dipole moment opposes applied field.
Repelled by bar magnet.
Very weakly magnetic.

Paramagnetic Induced dipole moment aligns to applied field.
Attracted by bar magnet.
Weakly magnetic.

Ferromagnetic Induced dipole moment aligns to applied field.
Attracted by bar magnet.
Very strongly magnetic.
Has memory and so can be used to create permanent magnets.
High electrical conductivity.

Ferrimagnetic Type of ferromagnetic material.
Induced dipole moment aligns to applied field.
Attracted by bar magnet.
Very strongly magnetic.

Ferrites Type of ferrimagnetic material.
Induced dipole moment aligns to applied field.
Attracted by bar magnet.

Very strongly magnetic.
Low electrical conductivity.

Superparamagnetic Material mixture: ferromagnetic particles suspended in a plastic binder.
Induced dipole moment aligns to applied field.
Very strongly magnetic.
Has memory, which allows for uses in audio, video, and data recording.


What are the dangers of radio frequency (rf)  and microwave exposure to humans?
Dangers to Humans of Radio Waves and Microwaves.

We can define the potential hazards of RF radiation in terms of:

1 Direct effects on people
(a) Thermal effects attributable to the heating of the human body due to the absorption of RF energy. At lower frequencies this includes heating due to excessive current densities in some parts of the body.

(b) Shocks and burns which may result from contact with conductive objects, e.g. scrap metal, vehicle bodies, etc., located in electromagnetic fields.

(c) The so called ‘athermal’ effects, if any, where it is postulated that the fields act directly on biological tissue without any significant heating being involved.

2 Indirect effects on people
Effects on people wearing implantable devices such as heart pacemakers, insulin pumps, passive metal plates and other related hardware due to interaction with some aspect of the implantable device. Some effects in this category affect the quality of life rather than physical health, e.g. interference with hearing aids and other electronic devices.

3 Effects on things in the environment
Ignition of flammable vapours and electro-explosive devices, e.g. detonators

Interference with equipment
Category 3 above may, of course, also involve people who may be present near the subject and may be affected by fire or explosion, people in aircraft where critical equipment is interfered with and the aircraft may be in jeopardy.

With the widespread use of mobile phones risks extend to interference with critical medical equipment in hospitals. Hence many people are likely to be affected in some way ranging from these obvious examples down to the merely irritating cases of interference with computers and domestic radio sets.

Before proceeding it is worth noting that a perceived ‘effect’ is not necessarily synonymous with ‘harm’ or ‘injury’. Our environment affects our bodies daily and some effects are of value, some harmful, and some have no apparent effect.

Some aspects of these topics may be differentiated in a general way in relation to the frequencies involved. Standards do tend to differ considerably in the detail of these.


An Introduction To Microsoft Hololens.
What is Microsoft Hololens?

Microsoft’s vision for the future is, it’s fair to say, one that not too many of us were expecting. Launched during the Windows 10 keynote with all the cloak and dagger reveal of a Jobsian ‘one
more thing…’ it became the headline story of the talk. this was undeniably a curve ball from the redmond giant.

But what kind of curveball exactly? Well, what it definitely is not is microsoft’s take on google glass.
holoLens is not an optical hUd and, while glass Explorers might be ridiculed and even viciously beaten for ‘exploring’ in public, you’d almost certainly be arrested if you approached a bank cashier wearing holoLens.

Yet that’s nothing to the trouble you’d be in should you even step near a petrol station or jittery downtown corner shop wearing oculus rift. Awesome it is. pretty it ain’t. and while it’s of closer comparison to holoLens than glass is, it’s still not quite the direct competitor to microsoft’s offering.

Rift locks you into a wholly virtual world whereas microsoft embraces the real world, showing its users pinning apps to living room walls and tinkering with projections of motorcycles.

Microsoft has effectively produced a micro pc that is hooked up to a set of high-definition holographic lenses, which it projects its 3d experience on 19 to. this, combined with spatial sound technology, creates wholly immersive Vr that promises to redefine Windows 10 apps… if the launch video is to be believed, anyway.

And that’s what’s making us very excited. Early hands-on reviews with development units have been both positive and profound. seen-it-all before technology journalists are genuinely excited about holoLens’s commercial, creative and educational potential.