Java is uniquely suited for network programming. It provides solutions to many issues that are difficult to solve using other programming languages. Java applets have a higher level of safety than that of similar software packages.

Java makes network programming much easier. Java applications and applet can communicate across the Internet; this feature is especially suitable for large-scale systems that are deployed over a large
geographical area.

Java is portable and platform-independent; Web applications are designed on various hardware and operating environments. Java executes applications in a run-time environment called a virtual machine.

The virtual machine executes the platform-independent bytecode that a Java compiler generates and is easily incorporated into Web browsers or the kernel of the operating system. Java virtual machines and Java API’s (application program interfaces) insulate Java programs from hardware dependencies; this is why Java’s bytecode can run on a wide range of platforms. Java applications can run on a variety of platforms without modification.

Java is also used for database programming. SQLJ is a way to embed the SQL (structured query language) in Java programs and to reduce the development and maintenance costs of Java programs that require database connectivity. SQLJ provides a simple model for Java code containing SQL statements.

SQLJ offers a much simpler and more productive programming API’s than JDBC (Java database connectivity) to develop applications that access relational data, and it can communicate with multi-vendor databases using standard JDBC drivers.

Distributed databases provide a mechanism for the information exchange in distributed processing. A distributed database is different from a centralized database as the latter provides data on one machine.

A distributed database is composed of separate databases distributed on a computer network that are accessed by all permitted users. Information exchange may also occur among databases; in other words, a computer in the distributed database can access the data stored in other computers.

Data consistency is guaranteed by intrinsic properties of databases. One advantage of a distributed database is that local databases are used to store the local information in the system.

Compared with a centralized database, a distributed database can save capital investments in communication networks with a higher security and reliability, since it can restrict local faults within the corresponding subareas.

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